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The seasons in India are very simple to remember - "wet" and "sweat". It is either pouring rain or very hot. Jokes aside, here are some specific details on the weather. No matter where your travel destination, avoid the months of March - May to travel to India - it is extremely hot no matter where you go.
December - February : winter for India. A great time to travel most of the continent as it is much cooler and more comfortable to travel. Temperatures average 20 degree celcius and can get cooler in the evenings. In the Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir region it is even colder with much of Kashmir under snow over these months.
June - July : monsoon for most of India so very humid and plenty of rain. Despite the fact that it arrives - and can arrive early or late - the monsoon may not conform to an expected pattern: you may have a few hours torrential downpour followed by sunshine; or you may have days or weeks of overcast skies and drizzly rain not unlike what you get in northern Europe and just as depressing.
If you travel at this time it is useless using any rain gear like plastic raincoats as within ten minutes you'll will want to throw them off with the humidity. Most Indians just carry an umbrella at all times and wear leather sandals or sport sandals and accept the fact that they will get drenched often and have permanently muddy feet.
April - November: good time to visit the Himalaya regions of Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir as the temperatures are cooler than the south and Kashmir does not have a monsoon season so you can trek all the way through to November.
April - August: pretty hot across most of India and unless you are used to travelling in the heat not a great time to visit India if you are looking for a relaxing, peaceful holiday as you will be wiped out by the humidity.