Campania has been at the forefront of Italian history for thousands of years. Settlement of the area began about 800 BC, when the Greeks founded a colony at Cumae, which is north of where Naples is now located. Not too long after the colony was founded, the Roman Empire began to grow and expand, and the Greek colony became a Roman territory. Not much happened until about 217 BC, when Hannibal entered Campania and burned crops to try to provoke Fabius Maximus Cunctator, the Roman Commander at the time. Hannibal was unsuccessful at first, but in 216 BC, he won a victory at the Battle of Cannae. Capua, the capital of Campania at the time, sided with Hannibal, and the result was Roman seige around the city.

The rest of Campania did not agree with Capua, however, and in 211 BC, the city was starved. Campania was a very important region to the Roman Empire because it was used for its supplies of grain. Not until the acquisition of Egypt would the Roman Empire get more grain from one area. After the fall of the Roman Empire many different groups moved in, including the Goths, Lombards, and Normans. Eventually, Campania formed a part of the Bourbon part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Parts of Campania, including Naples, were destroyed in World War II.