Your immigration (passport control) will be in Amsterdam airport. You will be able to then go to the Schengen area gates etc very quickly. Should be a relatively easy process.
#1, "very quickly"?
Last time I transferred non-Schengen to Schengen in the morning (at the time when most flights from the Eastern part of the USA tend to arrive) the queue was several hundred long. This was about four weeks ago.
..and have you got through yet? :)
Are you asking me? ;-)
I have a Privium card. I walked straight past the queue and was through in ten seconds. The best 100-odd Euro I've ever spent!